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Welcome to! Chemistry Help, through Chemistry Video Notes and pdf Notes for AP Chemistry, High School Chemistry, College Chemistry and General Chemistry Courses, is provided.  These Chemistry Lecture Notes can be used as a Chemistry Study Guide, since all major Chemistry Topics are covered.  Although these Chemistry Notes are arranged for an AP Chemistry or Honors Chemistry Course, they can be used for General College Chemistry Notes.  The last page has Chemistry Notes arranged for a regular High School Chemistry course.


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Welcome to!

Chemistry Honors / Chem AP / College General Chemistry Notes        

(For Regular Chemistry Notes click on this link.  

Unit 1: Foundations (Significant Figures, Conversions, Naming & Formulas of Compounds)
Significant Figures and Rounding Significant Figures, Conversions, Temperature Conversions, Density, States of Matter, Heterogeneous/Homogeneous, Physical/Chemical Characteristics/Changes, Atomic Laws, Atomic Models, Calculate Number of Protons/Neutrons/Electrons, Properties of Metals/Non-metals/Metalloids, Naming & Formulas of Ionic and Covalent Compounds.

Notes: Unit 1 pdf notes, step by step Significant Figures (without highlighting), step by step Conversions (without highlighting), step by step Writing & Naming Compounds (without highlighting).

Video Notes:How to use your calculator #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 APMisc

Tables: Periodic Table, Periodic Table with Groups, Conversion Factors, Conversion Flash Cards, Common Ions, Ion Flashcards.

All Unit Miscellaneous AP Notes:  AP All Unit Miscellaneous Notes.

Photos of Chemists to go with the notes.

Print 2, 4 or more pages on a single sheet: Check in the print window for "printing multiple pages per sheet".  It may be in the "page scaling" or "properties" (or look in the "help" section).  Also check the box for "print page borders".


Unit 2: Stoichiometry (including the Mole, Empirical/Molecular Formulas)
Calculating Atomic Mass, Gram & Mole & Molecule Calculations, Percent Composition, Empirical Formula, Hydrates, Balancing Chemical Reactions, 5 Types of Chemical Reactions, Stoichiometry, Limiting Reagent, Percent Yield, Stoichiometry and Empirical Formula together.

Notes: Unit 2 pdf notes, step by step Balancing Reactions (without highlighting), step by step Stoichiometry (without highlighting).

Video Notes: #11 #12 #13 #14 #15 #16 APMisc


Unit 3: Reactions in Solutions (Molarity, Molecular / Ionic & Redox Reactions)
Solvation, Electrolytes, Concentration: Molarity, Precipitation Reactions: Molecular & Complete Ionic & Net Ionic, Acid & Base Reactions: Molecular & Complete Ionic & Net Ionic, Acid & Base Titration, Oxidation Numbers, Redox: Oxidation & Reduction Reactions, Balancing Redox Reactions.

Notes: Unit 3 pdf notes, step by step Molecular, Ionic & Net Reactions (without highlighting), step by step Oxidation Numbers and Balancing Redox (without highlighting),  AP Unit 3 Normality.

Video Notes: #19 #20 #21 #22 #23 #24 #25 APMisc

Table: Solubility Rules & Balancing Redox steps.


Unit 4: Gases
Pressure: Closed & Open Manometers, Ideal Gas Law and Variations: Boyle’s & Charles’ & Avogadro’s, Gas Density (Vapor Density), Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures (Gas Collected over Water problems), Gas Stoichiometry with 22.4 L, Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases, Kinetic Energy, Root Mean Square Velocity, Graham’s Law of Effusion/Diffusion, Van der Waal Equation for Gases.

Notes: Unit 4 pdf notes.

Video Notes: #28 #29 #30 #31 #32 #33 #34 APMisc

Table: Gas Constants, 3/2RT Kinetic Energy equation derivation from 1/2mv2.


Unit 5: Thermodynamics / Thermochemistry / Energies (∆H, ∆G, & ∆S)
Heat, Endothermic/Exothermic, 1st Law of  Thermodynamics, Calculating Internal Energy & Work & Heat, Enthalpy of Reactions, Calorimetry with Specific Heat Capacities & Molar Heat Capacities, Hess’s Law, Entropy, 2nd & 3rd Law of Thermodynamics, Gibb’s Free Energy, Relationship between G, H & S.

Notes: Unit 5 pdf notes, step by step Hess’s Law and ΔHformation (without highlighting), AP Unit 5 Extensive/Intensive & Spontaneity.

Video Notes: #37 #38 #39 #40 #41 APMisc APEx/Int&Spontaneity


Unit 6: Atomic Structure (Electron Configurations, Quantum numbers) and Periodicity
Emission Spectra, Frequency & Wavelength Equation, Planck’s Equation, Einstein’s Photoelectric Effect, De Broglie’s Equation, Bohr Model for Hydrogen Electrons, Shrodinger’s Quantum Mechanics, Heisenburg’s Uncertainty Principle, Electron Orbitals, Electron Configurations, Orbital Diagrams: Pauli Exclusion Principle & Hund’s Rule, Quantum Numbers, Periodicity,  Atomic Radius, Ionization Energy, Electron Affinity, Electronegativity, Most Active Metal/Non-metal.

Notes: Unit 6 pdf notes, step by step Electron Configurations and Orbital Diagrams (without highlighting), Heisenburg's Uncertainty Principle, AP Unit 6 Flame, Ion, Solid Colors.

Video Notes: #44 #45 #46 #47 #48 #49 APMisc APFlameIonColors

Table: Quantum Numbers/Electron Orbitals.


Unit 7: Bonding (Lewis & Molecular Structures / Names, Octet Rule & Exceptions)
Bond Character, Most Polar Bonds, Coulomb’s Law, Repulsion Energy for Covalent Bonds, Calculating Enthalpy with Bond Energies, Lattice Energy, Calculating Ionic Bond Energies using Lattice Energy, Localized Electron Model, Lewis Structures, Octet Rule, VSEPR, Resonance, Formal Charge, Lewis Dot Diagrams, Polarity, Hybridization, Multiple Bonds and Hybridization, Molecular Orbital Theory for Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules, Bond Order.

Notes: Unit 7 pdf notes, step by step Drawing Structures (without highlighting), Step by Step Polarity and Hybridization (without highlighting).

Video Notes: #52 #53 #54Part1 #54Part2 #55Part1 #55Part2 #56 #57 #58Part1 #58Part2 APMisc APComplexIonsIsomers

Structures of NO, NO2, PO43-, SO42-, BrO31-, BrO41-, ClO31-, ClO41-, XeO3, XeO4, MnO41-: AP Unit 7 Complex Ions, Isomers, Octet Exceptions.

Table: Molecular Structures/Names, Molecular Structure Flash Cards.


Unit 8: Solids/Liquids Forces and Equations (Molarity, molality, mol fraction etc.)
Type of Solids & Type of Bonding (Interparticle Forces), Ionic, Types of Closest Packed Structures, Covalent: Dipole-Dipole & H-Bonding & London Dispersion Forces (LDF), Liquid Forces: Adhesive & Cohesive, Surface Tension, Viscosity, Relationship between Interparticle Force and Surface Tension & Viscosity & Boiling Point & Melting Point & Vapor Pressure, Solids: Crystals & Amorphous Solids, Cubic, Body Centered Cubic, Face Centered Cubic, Metallic Closest Packing, Electron Sea Model, Band or Molecular Orbit Model, Alloys, Network Solids, Doped Semiconductors, Group VIII, Body Centered/Face Centered Problems, Vapor Pressure, Change of State problems with Specific Heats and Enthalpy of Fusion/Vaporization, Phase Diagrams, Triple Point, Critical Point, Vapor Pressure and Temperature: Clausius-Clapeyron, Molarity, Molality, Mass Percent, Mol Fraction, Energies of Solution, Solubility Factors: Polarity & Henry’s Law & Temperature, Raoult’s Law, Boiling Point Elevation/Freezing Point Depression, Osmotic Pressure with Van’t Hoff Factor, Colloids, Tyndall Effect, Brownian Motion, Aerosol, Foam, Emulsion.

Notes: Unit 8 pdf notes, AP Unit 8 Intra vs. Intermolecular forces.

Video Notes: #61 #62 #63Part1 #63Part2 #64 #65 #66 #67 #68Part1 #68Part2 #69 #70Part1 #70Part2 APMisc APIntraVsInter

Table: Solid Types and Forces,Types of Solids Periodic Tables.


Unit 9: Kinetics (Rates) and Equilibrium
Reaction Rates, Integrated Rate Laws, First & Second & Zero Order Rate Laws, Reaction Mechanisms,
Chemical Kinetics/Collision Model, Transition State or Activated Complex, Activation Energy, Catalysts/Inhibitors, Arrhenius Equation, Equilibriums, Keq and Kp Equation, Equilibrium Problems at Equilibrium and Having to Shift to Equilibrium: Q vs. K, Le Chatelier’s Principle with Concentration & Pressure & Temperature.

Notes: Unit 9 pdf notes, AP Unit 9 Rate Constant Units & Two Reaction Mechanisms.

Video Notes: #73(Chemnotes#80) #74 #75(Chemnotes#81) #76 #77 #78 #79 APMisc APRateMechanisms APKineticWorksheet


Unit 10: Acids & Bases (All Weak/Strong Combinations) and Ksp
Arrhenius Theory, Bronsted-Lowry Theory, Lewis Theory, pH scale, Finding pH &  pOH & [H+] & [OH-], Strong Acids, Weak Acids, Percent Dissociation, Strong Bases, Weak Bases, Polyprotic Acids, Acid-Base Properties of Salts (from acids and bases), Common Ion Effect, Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation, Buffered Solutions with Additives: Acid with Acid, Base with Base, Acid or Base added to Water, Weak Acid with Strong Base, Weak Base with Strong Acid, Working with Buffered Solutions to Attain a Certain pH, Solubility Equilibriums (Ksp), Precipitation Reactions with Ksp, Gibb’s Free Energy and Equilibriums.

Notes: Unit 10 pdf notes, AP Unit 10 Acid/Base Titration Curves, AP Unit 10 Manipulating Ksp's and Amphiprotic Acids.

Video Notes: #82 #83 #84 #85 #86 #87 #88 APMisc APTitrationCurves APKspAmphiproticAcids


Unit 11: Electrochemistry and Radiochemistry / Nuclear Chemistry
Galvanic Cells, Finding Best Oxidizer or Reducer or Oxidizing Agent or Reducing Agent, Electrical Work / Free Energy, Nernst Equation, Electrolysis Stoichiometries, Nuclear Decay Reactions, Bombardments, First Order Half Lives, Nuclear Fission/Fusion, E=mc2 and Binding Energy, Nuclear Power Plants.

Notes: Unit 11 pdf notes, AP Unit 11 Predicting Radioactive Decay, Step by Step Radioactive Decay & Bombardment.

Video Notes: #91 #92 #93 #94 #95 #96 APMisc APRadioactiveDecay


Unit 12: Introduction to Organic and Biochemistry
Naming Alkanes including Cycloalkanes, Naming Alkenes including Cycloalkenes, Cis/Trans Isomers, Aromatics, Naming Alkynes, Recognizing and Naming Functional Groups: Alcohols, Ethers, Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, Esters, Amides, Amines, Biochemistry: Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids (Fatty Acids), Nucleic Acids, Cell Division, Protein Synthesis.

Notes: Unit 12 pdf notes, Unit 12 AP Important Types of Reactions.

Video Notes: #100 #101 #102 APMisc APImportantTypesReactions APPhotoelectronSpectrum





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